MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-2, Discussion- 6.
( The Scriptural Treatise )
"Sarvam hyetad Brahma, ayam-atma Brahma,
so' yam-atma catuspat."
sarvam - all;
hi - indded;
brahma - this (is) BRAHMAM;
ayam atma brahma - this Self ( ATMA IN US ) is BRAHMAM;
sah - That ( BRAHMAM );
ayam atma - ( which is ) this Self ( ATMA IN US );
catuspat - ( is ) covered with four quarters ( PARTS ).
"All this is verily BRAHMAM. This is BRAHMAM. This JIVATMA ( ATMA WITHIN US ) has four quarters ( parts )."
We use the pronoun 'this' as a contrast to 'that.'
We say 'that wall' and 'this book' when the book is nearer to us than the wall.
But 'this book' becomes in our concept 'that book' with reference to 'this shirt' that we are wearing, since the shirt is nearer to us than the book.
Analysing thus, if we identify with the intellect even our own body and mind should become 'that body' and 'that mind.'
Therefore, the entire mass of things indicated by the pronoun 'that' constitutes the world - of - objects, while that the center within ourselves which is 'the this' is the point to be pointed out by the Rishi as 'this' and that which is thus indicated by the fundamental and absolute 'this' should not be ever a theme for the pronoun 'that.'
The very last point, at which all objects indicated by 'that' exhaust in a final'this' with reference to which there cannot be anything else nearer to us, should therefore be ourn own Self, the ATMA -"THIS ATMA."
To be continued ...