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Mundakopanishad : " Nature of higher and lower knowledge" -Mantram-5.



Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1,


Section-1,


Mantram-5. ( Nature  of  higher  and  lower  knowledge)




Tatrapara,  Rg-vedo  yajur-vedah

sama-vedo-atharva-vedah  siksha

kalpo  vyakaranam  niruktam  chando  jyothisham-iti

atha  para,  yaya  tad-aksharam-adhigamyate.



tatra  =  there;

apara  =  to  lower  knowledges;

rgvedah  =  Rig-Vedam;

yajurvedah  =  the  Yajur  Vedam;

samavedah  =  Sama  Vedam;

atharva  vedah  =  Atharva  Vedam;

siksha  =  phonetics;

kalpah  =  code  of  rituals;

vyakaranam  =  grammar;

niruktam  =  Etymology;

chandah  =  metrics;

jyothisham  =  astrology;

iti  =  that;

atha  =  now;

para  =  the  (higher)  knowledge;

yaya  =  by  which;

tat  =  that;

aksharam  =  that  beyond  the  word-meaning  in  languages --- to  immortality;

adhigamyate  =  leads.



"There,  the  ' lower  knowledge'   is  constituted  of  (the   four  Veda-s )  the  Rig,  the  Sama,  the  Yajur  and  the  atharva,  and  the  ( six  Vedanga-s)  Siksha  (  phonetics),  Kalpa ( code  of  rituals),  Vyakaranam  (grammar),  Nirukta  (etymology),  Chanda-s  (metrics),  and  Jyaothisham  (astrology).  Now  the  ' Higher  knowledge'  is  that  which  leads  to  immortality  or  that  which  goes  beyond  the  word-meaning  in  languages."      


Next : Discussion-1. 'classification  of  knowledge'  ....

To be continued   ....


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MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
Chapter-1.
"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."

Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;
Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;
etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;
idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;
tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );
upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;
bhutam  =  the  past;
bhavat  =  the  present;
bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;
iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );
sarvam  =  all  this;
Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;
yat  =  that  which  is;
ca  =  and;
anyat  =  anything  else;
trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;
tat  =  that;
api  =  also;
Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;
eva  =  only.

"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that …

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MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-2

"Sarvam  hyetad  Brahma,  ayam-atma Brahma,
so' yam-atma  catuspat."

sarvam - all;

hi - indded;

etat -this;

brahma - this (is)  BRAHMAM;

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sah - That ( BRAHMAM );

ayam atma - ( which is ) this Self ( ATMA IN US );

catuspat - ( is ) covered with four quarters ( PARTS ).

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Discussion-1.

In the last mantram the great Rishi summarizing his transcendental wisdom declared, "all this is, verily, "AUM".

Continuing the declaration, the Rishi is now giving a discourse to the student and he says, "all this is BRAHMAM."

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Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-2

"Sarvam  hyetad  Brahma,  ayam-atma Brahma,
so' yam-atma  catuspat."

sarvam - all;

hi - indded;

etat -this;

brahma - this (is)  BRAHMAM;

ayam atma brahma - this Self ( ATMA IN US ) is BRAHMAM;

sah - That ( BRAHMAM );

ayam atma - ( which is ) this Self ( ATMA IN US );

catuspat - ( is ) covered with four quarters ( PARTS ).

"All this is verily BRAHMAM. This is BRAHMAM. This JIVATMA ( ATMA WITHIN US ) has four quarters ( parts )."

Discussion-7.

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