Mundakopanishad : " Nature of higher and lower knowledge" -Mantram-5.



Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1,


Section-1,


Mantram-5. ( Nature  of  higher  and  lower  knowledge)




Tatrapara,  Rg-vedo  yajur-vedah

sama-vedo-atharva-vedah  siksha

kalpo  vyakaranam  niruktam  chando  jyothisham-iti

atha  para,  yaya  tad-aksharam-adhigamyate.



tatra  =  there;

apara  =  to  lower  knowledges;

rgvedah  =  Rig-Vedam;

yajurvedah  =  the  Yajur  Vedam;

samavedah  =  Sama  Vedam;

atharva  vedah  =  Atharva  Vedam;

siksha  =  phonetics;

kalpah  =  code  of  rituals;

vyakaranam  =  grammar;

niruktam  =  Etymology;

chandah  =  metrics;

jyothisham  =  astrology;

iti  =  that;

atha  =  now;

para  =  the  (higher)  knowledge;

yaya  =  by  which;

tat  =  that;

aksharam  =  that  beyond  the  word-meaning  in  languages --- to  immortality;

adhigamyate  =  leads.



"There,  the  ' lower  knowledge'   is  constituted  of  (the   four  Veda-s )  the  Rig,  the  Sama,  the  Yajur  and  the  atharva,  and  the  ( six  Vedanga-s)  Siksha  (  phonetics),  Kalpa ( code  of  rituals),  Vyakaranam  (grammar),  Nirukta  (etymology),  Chanda-s  (metrics),  and  Jyaothisham  (astrology).  Now  the  ' Higher  knowledge'  is  that  which  leads  to  immortality  or  that  which  goes  beyond  the  word-meaning  in  languages."      


Next : Discussion-1. 'classification  of  knowledge'  ....

To be continued   ....


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