Upanishads : " The Cream of Vedas"
Vedanta ( Veda +anta i.e; the end of Vedas ) as the literal meaning connotes comprises the philosophical portion of Vedas, called the Upanishads.
Of about 280 Upanishads unearthed so far, 108 have been accepted as authorised texts , and out of them have been commented upon by great Acharyas lika Sri Sankaracharya , Sri Ramanjacharya, Sri Madhavacharya and thus are classified as major.
Discussion-2. "The Golden Sheath, the highest" .....
We have already seen that the human personality is, for purposes of philosophical apprehension, taken to be the spirit enveloped by five concentric circles of 'matter' :
1. the food - sheath,
2. the vital-air-sheath,
3. the Mental - sheath,
4. the intellectual - sheath,
5. and the Bliss - sheath.
The attempt of the seeker is to withdraw his entire attention from his identifications with, the outer layers.
When a seeker has thus renounced his attachments to the body, the vital-air, mind, and intellect, spiritually he transcends them all and this state is considered to be unearthly, the blissful and divinely peaceful, because all our peace and joys are shattered due to the play of pain-giving instruments such as the body, the mind, and the intellect.
( The Scriptural Treatise )
"Harih Aum, Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam sarvam
tasyopa-vyakhyanam bhutam bhavad-bhavisyad iti
sarvam-onkara eva, yac-canyat-trikalatitam
Harih Aum = symbol of para Brahmam;
Aum iti = Omkara ( iti ) thus;
etat aksharam = this syllable;
idam sarvam = ( is ) all this;
tasya = of that ( Omkara );
upa-vyakhyanam = a clear exposition;
bhutam = the past;
bhavat = the present;
bhavishyat = ( and ) the future;
iti = thus ( belonging to );
sarvam = all this;
Omkara eva = ( is ) Omkara only;
yat = that which is;
ca = and;
anyat = anything else;
trikala atitam = beyond ( the three periods of ) time;
tat = that;
api = also;
Omkarah = ( is ) Omkara;
eva = only.
"Harih Aum, Aum, the word, is all this. A clear explanation of it is ( the following )" : -
Mantram - 11. [ What men with knowledge ( Upasana ) attain ].
Discussion-2. " Surya dvarena ( the path/orb of the Sun ) ... third line of the mantram....."
Though the orb ( path ) of the Sun ( Surya dvarena ) :
The route taken by the subte body after death in the world are of two kinds :
1. the Moon - path and 2. the Sun - path.
The Sun - path is called is called "Uttarayanam" and the Moon - path the "Dakshinayanam."
It is the theory of Vedantam that those who merely perform 'Karma-s,' on departing from here ( after - death )take to the southern path i.e, "Dakshinayanam" to live in the "Pitrulokam" ( World of his ancestors ); and enjoying there for an interval, the come back
( to this world ).