ISAVASYA UPANISHAD : Mantram : 11..
ISAVASYA UPANISHAD :
VAJASANEYI SAMHITA UPANISHAD
Vidyam cavidyam ca yastad vedo-bhayagm saha,
avidyaya mrtyum tirtva vidyaya-mrtam-asnute.
vidyam = vidya;
ca = and;
avidyam = avidya;
yah = who;
tat = that;
veda = known;
ubhayagm = both;
saha = together;
avidyaya = by avidya;
mrtyum = death;
tirtva = crossing;
vidyaya = by vidya;
amrtam = immortality;
asnute = enjoys, obtains.
(11). "He who knows at the same time both " Vidya and Avidya," overcomes death by 'Avidya' and obtains immortality by 'Vidya.' "
Discussion-1 In explaining the great theory of 'action in inaction' the Rishi have given this pregnant Mantram to their Bharatheeya generations.
In the first Mantram of this section, they condemned both 'Vidya and Avidya' as guiding us only to a dark age when an individual ( or generation ) pursues each one of this pair exclusive of the other.
Thereafter, quoting the greater Maharishi-s of the ancient periods, the 'Seer' of the 'Isavasya Upanishad' is now summarising how they are to be pursued in happy synthesis.
When they are not to be undertaken individually, the next possibility that would suggest itself to any student would be that both 'Vidy and Avidya' are to be pursued in a synthesis.
Synthesis of material activity ( Karmam ) and spiritual knowledge ( Jnanam ) has been often advocated by modern teachers of synthesis.
But the exact technique of it has not been fully made clear.
Here in the Upanishad, it has been explained beyond all doubts, and the expressions are as perfect and complete as a scientific statement.
It is said that he, who combines in himself both 'Vidya and Avidya' together, would overcome "DEATH BY AVIDYA AND OBTAIN IMMORTALITY BY VIDYA".
NEXT : Discussion-2. "Swami Adi Sri Sankarachrya's debate with Sri Bhaskara on this" .....
To be continued ....