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Mundakopanishad : [ Description of the sad state of knowledge-less ( devoid of Upasana ) rituals ]. Mantram-s. 8 to 10.






Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram - 8 to 10. [ Description  of  the  sad  state  of  knowledge-less  ( devoid  of  Upasana )  rituals ]


Mantram-10.


Discussion-3. "Meritorious  acts  ......"



Meritorious  acts  are  divided  into  two  groups  by  our  ancient  Rishi-s  on  the  basis  of  the  text-book  that  allow  it.

These  noble  acts  of  spiritual  merit,  advocated  in  the  "Sruti-s" called  "ISTA"***,  constitued  the  "Yajna-s" and  "Yaga-s";

and  those  prescribed  in  the  "Smriti-s"  constituted  the  digging  of  a  well,  opening  a  path,  building  of  a  hospitals,  schools,  feeding  the  poor,  tending  the  sick,  helping  education  etc.,  which  is  called  "PURTAM".



***

1. "ISTA :  Agnihotra - { the  fire - kindling  ceremoney  ( homam ) }  traditionally  enjoins,  on  a  brahmana  house - holder,  learning  and  teaching  of  Veda-s,  austerity,  truthfulness,  hospitality  and  the  ceremony  called  "Vaisvadeva" which  comprises,  among  other  terms,  the  feeding  of  animals  and  birds.


2. "PURTAM"  :  Comprises  of  public  utility  welfare  works  such  as  sinking  of  wels,  construction  of  water  storage  tanks  and  establishing  of  dharmasala-s,  for  travellers,  opening  of  schools,  hospitals,  temples,  laying  of  gardens,  feeding  the  poor  and  such  other  works  without  any  "DESIRE  FOR  FRUITS"........


Next  :  Discussion-4. "What  Upanishads  say  about  the  above  two  "ISTA and  PURTA"  ......"


To be continued   ........



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MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion- 6.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
Chapter-1.
"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."

Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;
Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;
etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;
idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;
tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );
upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;
bhutam  =  the  past;
bhavat  =  the  present;
bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;
iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );
sarvam  =  all  this;
Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;
yat  =  that  which  is;
ca  =  and;
anyat  =  anything  else;
trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;
tat  =  that;
api  =  also;
Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;
eva  =  only.

"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that …

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-2, Discussion- 1.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-2

"Sarvam  hyetad  Brahma,  ayam-atma Brahma,
so' yam-atma  catuspat."

sarvam - all;

hi - indded;

etat -this;

brahma - this (is)  BRAHMAM;

ayam atma brahma - this Self ( ATMA IN US ) is BRAHMAM;

sah - That ( BRAHMAM );

ayam atma - ( which is ) this Self ( ATMA IN US );

catuspat - ( is ) covered with four quarters ( PARTS ).

"All this is verily BRAHMAM. This is BRAHMAM. This JIVATMA ( ATMA WITHIN US ) has four quarters ( parts )."

Discussion-1.

In the last mantram the great Rishi summarizing his transcendental wisdom declared, "all this is, verily, "AUM".

Continuing the declaration, the Rishi is now giving a discourse to the student and he says, "all this is BRAHMAM."

Naturally, it is clear that the great Master is wanting the student to understand that AUM is BRAHMAM.

AUM is not only indicates the Spiritual Centre in the Individual, but also r…

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-2, Discussion- 7.

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MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-2

"Sarvam  hyetad  Brahma,  ayam-atma Brahma,
so' yam-atma  catuspat."

sarvam - all;

hi - indded;

etat -this;

brahma - this (is)  BRAHMAM;

ayam atma brahma - this Self ( ATMA IN US ) is BRAHMAM;

sah - That ( BRAHMAM );

ayam atma - ( which is ) this Self ( ATMA IN US );

catuspat - ( is ) covered with four quarters ( PARTS ).

"All this is verily BRAHMAM. This is BRAHMAM. This JIVATMA ( ATMA WITHIN US ) has four quarters ( parts )."

Discussion-7.

The Absolute 'this' is then the Spiritual Center in ourselves; and since Spiritual Factor is Eternal and All-pervading, the Center in ourselves is the Center everywhere.

The individual-Self is the Universal-Self.

And hence the Sruti says, "This Atma is BRAHMAM."

This oft-quoted declaration is considered to be major text ( Mahavakyam ) by the Vedantik-seekers.

A Mahavakyam is a scriptuaral declaration…